Baekje Museum, Seoul

View of park and fortress from museum roof
Rod at museum entrance
Maps of the old kingdoms

Baekje Museum, Seoul

This is well worth a half-day’s visit, combined with a visit to the Monchontoseong Fortress and Olympic Park. The park has cafes and coffee shops, and the museum has a café and restaurant on the top floor (we had lunch up there).

Seoul Baekje Museum, which is dedicated to the ancient history and culture of the old capital city of the Baekje Kingdom, is a fairly new museum in Seoul. It is located inside Olympic Park, overlooking Monchontoseong Fortress, and has pretty lawns and gardens in front of it.

Baekje armor
Timeline wall

As I wrote about earlier, in the area of Songpa, south of the Han River in Seoul, are remains of the Baekje Kingdom and many relics from excavations there. These discoveries led researchers to believe that this area was a base for Baekje culture for a long period.

Seoul, the capital and heart of Korea today, was also for hundreds of years the capital of this ancient kingdom of Baekje. The Baekje Kingdom survived 678 years (18BC-660AD), and the capital was here for 493 years (18BC-475AD). Baekje moved its capital south to Gongju City in 475.

Neolithic milling stone
Bronze Age mirror
Baekje brick with landscape pattern

Many large settlements were already established in the Neolithic Age and their traces still can be found in the numerous areas including Poongnap Fortress, Mongchon Fortress and Seokchon-dong tomb complex. Since ancient times the Han River, running through Seoul City, has been an essential transport route and helped to create fertile farmlands along its banks. This allowed Seoul to become the industrial hub that was the stage for several wars during the Three Kingdom period (Baekje, Shilla and Goguryeo). 

In recent years, tens of thousands of Baekje-era relics were excavated from the Poongnap Fortress telling the hidden historic stories beneath them.

Baekje gilt-bronze incense burner
Baekje gilt-bronze crown
Baekje Museum—note the ramp on the right leading up to the roof garden

To systemically preserve those relics, to review the 2000-year history of Seoul, to lead research on further excavations and to act as an educational resource, the city established the Seoul Baekje Museum on a site overlooking the Mongchon Fortress in the Olympic Park. Construction started in 2004 and was completed in Oct 2010, but the museum only opened officially in April 2012. It’s an impressive museum, not only for what it showcases but also for the building itself, now a landmark in the park that has won numerous architecture awards.

Part of roof garden
Viv sits in a model of a cow-cart on the roof
Model of a Baekje boat, called a Baekjaebang

The exterior of Seoul Baekje Museum resembles the outline of Mongchon earthen fortress, partly designed in the shape of a vessel to evoke the importance of the Baekje kingdom as a maritime powerhouse. They were skilled ship builders, crafting boats with a flat bottom and one sail (although some say there may have been two sails). The slanting feature of the building on one side represents a vessel in the ocean. Baekje developed its national power mainly by trading with China and Japan through the Hangang River and Yellow Sea. It is also designed to harmonize with the surroundings, thus the brown color and the grassed slope leading up to the roof garden.

Plan of a Baekje boat
Baekje toilet bowl for men

The Seoul Baekje Museum showcases the long history of the region since the Paleolithic period, focusing on the Hanseong period of Baekje (18BC-475AD) in particular because this was the time when the area of present-day Seoul became the Baekje capital city. With its capital established along the Hangang (river) the Baekje flourished in this area, a fact that had powerful influences on neighboring countries.

There is lots of information in English alongside an engaging display of maps, models, artifacts and replicas, making the era come alive. The main point that emerges is that the Baekje culture was very advanced culturally.

 The vast Lobby has a cross-section of the Pungnap Earthen Fortress, which is three-

Fortress wall in the Lobby

floors high. A thin layer was taken from the 43-meter wide and 9-11-meter high fortress wall for this wall exhibit, and it’s displayed with a full-scale model of workers constructing an earth rampart.

Exhibition Hall 1 focuses on Prehistoric Civilization in the Seoul area and the Dawn of Baekje. This tells the story of Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age and early Iron Age civilization in Seoul area, especially in the riparian area of the Hangang (river).

Baekje loom

Exhibition Hall 2: Here the history of Baekje is displayed from its founding in this area and its growth over 495 years. Besides showing the life of the people at that time, it also describes how Baekje became a bigger power and interacted with China and Japan. One interesting exhibit is on how their tombs changed, from stone mound tombs to stone chamber tombs.

Exhibition Hall 3 shows the confrontation between the Three Kingdoms—Baekje, Goguryeo and Silla—and the history of the Baekje after the fall of its capital in Hanseoung and move to Gongju.

The museum is free and open daily 9am-7pm except Mondays and January 1st. The mayor of Seoul may also decide to close it periodically for special days.

You can get a self-guided audio tour for smart phones.



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